Imam Syafi `i The Defenders Sunnah and Hadith of the Prophet
His name is Muhammad with nick name Abu Abdillah . His nasab complete was Muhammad ibn Idris ibn al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Uthman ibn Shafi’ bin As-Saib ibn ‘Ubayd ibn’ Abdu ibn Zayd ibn Hashim ibn al-Muttalib ibn ‘Abdu Manaf ibn Qusai. His nasab met the Prophet nasab at ‘Abdu Manaf ibn Qusai. That way, he still included the relatives of the Messenger of Allah Prophet Muhammad because the biological relatives from distant descendants of his uncle, namely Hashim ibn al-Muttalib .
His father, Idris, arrived from the region Tibalah (A region in the area Tihamah on the way to Yemen). He is a man who does not haves. At first he lived in Medina and then moved and settled in ‘Asqalan (seaside city in the Palestinian territories) and eventually died when he still young. Shafi ‘, the grandfather of his grandfather, whose name became the source-of Syafi’I name he (Shafi’i) – according to some scholars is a friend shigar (junior) of the Prophet. As-Saib, father Shafi ‘, his self included friend (senior) who has a physical resemblance with the Prophet shollallahu’alaihiwasallam. He was included in the line of figures in the Battle of Badr Kuraysh idolaters. When he was captured and then redeem itself and declare himself a Muslim.
Historians and scholars nasab and experts agree that Imam Shafi’i hadith comes from the pure Arab descent. Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim would have to give their testimony and the validity of these continue generations with the Prophet, then they argue with the opinions of a group of people among Malikiyah and Hanafiyah stating that the original is not a descendant of Imam Shafi in nasab Kuraysh, but only in offspring Wala ‘alone. As for his mother, there are differences of opinion about her identity. Some opinions say he is still the descendants of al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib, while others mention a woman from the nomadic tribe that has nick name Ummu Habibah Azadiyah. Imam an-Nawawi argued that the mother Imam Shafi’i is a woman who diligently serve and have a high intelligence. He was a faqih in religious matters and has the ability to do istinbath.
Time and Place of birth
He was born in the year 150. In the same year, Abu Hanifa died thus commented on by al-Hakim as a sign that he is the successor of Abu Hanifa in the field that he concentrate to learn it.
About his birthplace, a lot of history that mentions a few different places. However, the famed and agreed upon by historians is the city Ghazzah (A city located at the border of Syria in the direction of Egypt. Precisely in southern Palestine
The distance to the city about two farsakh Asqalan). Another place that is mentioned is the city of Asqalan and Yemen.
Ibn Hajar gives the explanation that these narrations can be combined with said that he was born in a place called Ghazzah Asqalan region. When he was two years old, his mother brought him to the land of Hijaz and mingle with the country’s population are descendants of Yemen because his mother came from tribes Azdiyah (from Yemen). Then when he was 10 years old, he was taken to Mecca, because the mother is worried his nasab noble gone and forgotten.
Growth and wanderings Finding Science
In Mecca, Imam Shafi ‘i and his mother lived near the al-Khaif Syi’bu. There, his mother sent him to a teacher learning. Actually her mother was not able to afford it, but the teacher was not willing to be paid after seeing the intelligence and speed in memorization. Imam Shafi recalled, “At al-Kuttab (Qur’an memorization school places), I see teachers who teach there students read verses of the Koran, then I’m memorizing it. Until when I memorized all of which he dictated, he said to me, ‘It is not lawful for me to take reward from you.’ “And it turned out later that the teacher immediately appointed him as his successor (watching the other students) if he does not exist. So, not to mention the age Baligh, he has turned into a teacher.
Once completed memorizing the Qur’an at Al-Kuttab, he then switched to the Grand Mosque to attend the assemblies of science there. Despite living in poverty, he has not studied in despair. He collects pottery fragments, pieces of bark, midrib dates and camel bone to be used to write. Up-to-jar belong to his mother filled with the bones, broken pottery, and dates that have been marked midrib hadeeth of the Prophet. And it happened again when he has not aged Baligh. Until it is said that he has memorized the Qur’an at the age of 7 years, then read and memorize the book of Al-Muwatta ‘of Imam Malik’s work at the age of 12 years before his encounter with Imam Malik in Medina
He is also interested in studying Arabic language and poetry-his poetry. He decided to live in a rural area with well-known tribe Hudzhail that has been fluency and purity of language, as well as their poetry. The result, after returning from there he has successfully mastered their fluency and memorize all the verses to them, and to know nasab Arabs, something that later praised by many experts in the Arabic language has ever met him and the life thereafter. However, determining the destiny God has another path for him. After getting advice from two scholars, namely Muslim Khalid ibn-az-Zanji-mufti of Makkah, and al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali ibn Yazid science of jurisprudence in order to deepen, so he was moved to concentrate on it and start doing his wanderings in search of knowledge.
He start with clerics draw from his city, Mecca, such as Khalid ibn Muslim, Dawud ibn Abd al-‘Athar, Muhammad bin Ali bin Shafi ‘are still unaccounted-away-uncle, Sufyan bin’ Uyainah-Mecca-hadith experts, Abdurrahman Abu Bakr ibn al-Maliki, Sa’id bin Salim bin Fudhail ‘Iyadh, and others. In Mecca, he studied fiqh, hadith, lughoh, and Muwatta ‘of Imam Malik. In addition, he also learned the skills of archery and horse riding to become proficient as a realization of his understanding of paragraph 60 of surah Al-Anfal. Even be said that the release of 10 arrows, 9 of which must have hit the target.
After obtaining permission from his sheikh to a binding ruling in religious matters, resulting desire to wander into the Medina, Dar al-Sunnah, to take science from his ulama. Moreover there was Imam Malik bin Anas, the author of al-Muwatta ‘. So he went there to see the Imam. In the presence of Imam Malik, he read al-Muwatta ‘that has been memorized in Mecca, and it makes Imam Malik admire him. He underwent mulazamah to Imam Malik for taking the science of it until the Imam’s death in 179. In addition to the Imam Malik, he also took the knowledge from other Medina scholars like Abu Yahya Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdul’ Aziz ad-Darawardi, Athaf bin Khalid, Isma’il bin Jafar, Ibrahim bin Sa’d and much more.
After returning to Mecca, he then went to Yemen in search of knowledge. There he took the knowledge from Mutharrif ibn Mazin and Hisham ibn Yusuf al-Qadi, as well as others. However, this originated from Yemen, he received a trial-the one thing that always faced by scholars, before and after him-. In Yemen, the name he became famous for a number of activities and determination to uphold justice, and his fame had reached the ears of the people of Mecca. Then, people who do not like him because its activities had complained to the Caliph Harun ar-Rashid, they accused him of fomenting rebellion to be with people from among Alawiyah.
As in history, Imam Shafi lived in the early years of reign of Banu ‘Abbasid dynasty seized power from the Umayyad dynasty. At that time, each of the Caliph of Bani ‘Abbasid almost always faced rebellion among the people from’ Alawiyah. This fact makes them behave very cruelly in the rebellion, the people ‘Alawiyah who actually still their brother as a fellow Banu Hashim. And it carve a deep sadness at the Muslims in general and in particular self-Imam Shafi’i. He saw people from the temple of the Prophet Ahlu face the tragic accident of the ruler. So different from the attitude of jurists in others, he also openly showed his love to them without the slightest fear, an attitude which would make the owner feel that life is very difficult
His attitude made him as a man who was accused of being tasyayyu ‘, but his attitude is totally different from tasysyu’ model of Syi’ah people. Even Imam Shafi’i balked tasysyu attitude ‘who believe in their model that the invalidity of the priesthood of Abu Bakr, Umar and’ Uthman, and only believe in the priesthood of Ali, and the infallibility of priests believe they are. While the love of his to Ahlu Temple is a love based on the commands contained in the Quran and hadeeth saheeh. And it turns out he does not love him then considered by the Syi’ah people as experts of their schools of jurisprudence.
False accusations directed at him that he wanted to rekindle the rebellion, made him arrested, and then to Baghdad in a state they bring him shackled with chains together with a number of people ‘Alawiyah. He is with the people ‘were brought to the presence Alawiyah Caliph Harun ar-Rashid. Caliph ordered his subordinates to prepare a sword and stretch the skin. After checking them one by one, he sent his servants behead them. When it comes to his turn, Imam Shafi’i try to give explanation to the Caliph. With intelligence and calmness and the defense of Muhammad ibn al-Hasan, the Iraqi jurists, he managed to convince the Caliph about what the alleged wrongdoing to him. Eventually he left the house of Harun ar-Rashid in a clean state from the charge of conspiring with ‘Alawiyah and get a chance to stay in Baghdad.
In Baghdad, he returned to his native activities, seeking knowledge. He has researched and studied schools of Ahlu Ra’yu. For that, he studied with mulazamah to Muhammad ibn al-Hassan. In addition, the Isma ‘il ibn’ Abdul Wahhab Ulayyah and ATS-Tsaqafiy and others. After winning the science of Iraq’s clerics, he returned to Mecca at the time his name began to be known. So he began teaching at his former place of learning. When the pilgrimage season came, thousands of pilgrims flocked to Mecca. Those who have heard his name and his skills are amazing, vibrant followed teaching until his name more widely known. One of them was Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
When his fame came to the city of Baghdad, Imam Abdur Rahman bin Mahdi sent a letter to Imam Shafi’i asking him to write a book which contains the maqbul khabar-khabar, and mansukh nasikh explanation of Quranic verses and others. And he also wrote his book famous, Ar-Risala.
After more than nine years of teaching in Mecca, he returned to travel to Iraq for the second time in order to help Ash-habul Hadits there. He got a standing ovation in Baghdad because of the great scholars there has been mention of his name. With his arrival, the group Ash-habul Hadits felt get fresh air because they had felt dominated by Ahlu Ra’yi. To the extent it is said that when he came to Baghdad in the Masjid Jami ‘al-Gharbi, there are around 20 halaqah Ahlu Ra’ yu. But when Friday came, who left only two or three halaqah only.
He lived in Iraq for two years, 197 years later on his return to Mecca. There he began to spread own his madzhab. Then the prosecutor came to him sip from the ocean science knowledge. But he has only been a year in Mecca.
In 198, he set out again to Iraq. However, he was only there a few months because of political changes took place. Caliph al-Ma’mun had been mastered by expert scholars of kalam, and trapped in the discussions about the science of kalam. While Imam Shafi’i is a person who understands well about the science of kalam. He knows how this knowledge conflicts with manhaj as-Salaf ash-pious-which during the holding-on in understanding the problems of the syariat That’s because people are experts Pen makes sense as the main criterion in dealing with each problem, making reference in understanding Shari’a when they know that the mind also has limitations. He knew very well hate the to the Ahlu hadith scholars. That’s why he rejected their madzhab.
And so in reality. Provocation they make the Caliph brought many disasters to the scholars of Ahlu hadith. One of them is known as Yaumul Mihnah, when he gathered the scholars to examine and compel them to accept the Qur’an is understood creatures. As a result, many scholars who went to prison, if not killed. One of them was Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Because of that change, Imam Shafi’i and then decided to go to Egypt. Actually, his heart refused to go there, but finally she gave herself to the will of God. In Egypt, he received a message from the community. There he was preaching, spreading knowledge, and wrote numerous books, including revising his book ar-Risala, until finally he met the end of his life there.
Defend your steadfastness Sunnah
As a follow- manhaj Ash-habul Hadits, he is in defining a problem, especially problems aqidah always makes the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet as the basis and source of law. He always mentions the postulates of both and make hujjah in the face of opponents, especially from among experts kalam. He said, “If you’ve got the Sunnah of the Prophet, so follow it and do not you turn to take the opinion of others.” Because of his commitment to follow the Sunnah and defend it, he received a Bachelor Nasir al-Sunnah wa al-Hadith.
There are many atsar about his dislike for Kalam to expert studies, given the differences he has with them manhaj. He said, “Every person who speaks (mutakallim) with one derived from Quran and Sunnah, the words are true, but if the other two, then the words just sheer delirium.” Imam Ahmad said, “For if it had been convinced by Shafi keshahihan a hadith, then he will disclose. And the best attitude is that he is not interested at all with the science of theology, and was more interested in jurisprudence(fiqih). “Imam Shafi ‘i said,” There’s nothing I hate more than the science of kalam and the expert. “Al-Mazani said,” It is the Imam Shafi’i hate busyness in the science of kalam. He forbade us busy in the science of kalam. “Dislike of him to give fatwa on the level of expert knowledge that the law was hit with a midrib kalam dates, and then mounted on the back of a camel and marched around among the tribes-tribes by announcing that it is a punishment for people who left the Qur’an and Sunnah and choose the science of kalam.
Since the death
Because of busy preaching and spread of science, he has always suffered from hemorrhoids to bleed. The longer the illness was getting worse until finally he died because of it. He died on Friday night after Isha prayers’ last day of the month of Rajab the beginning of the year 204 in the age of 54 years. May Allah give him mercy wide.
Ar-Rabi said that he dreamed of seeing the Imam Shafi’i, after his death. He said to him, “What God has done unto you, O Abu Abdillah?” He replied, “God put me on a chair of gold and sprinkled on my fine pearls.”
Although he only live for half a century and preoccupations to travel far to seek knowledge, it did not stop him from writing many books. Amount according to Ibn Zulaq reached 200 parts, whereas according to al-Marwaziy reached 113 books about the interpretation, jurisprudence, adab and others. Yaqut al-Hamawi said the number reached 174 books of which the titles mentioned by Ibn an-Nadim in al-Fahrasat. The most famous among the books of his book, al-Umm, which consists of four volumes containing 128 problems, and ar-Risala al-Jadidah (which has revisions) of the Qur’an and Sunnah as well as its position in the Shari’a.
1. Al-Umm, part muqoddimah pp. 3-33
2. Siyar an-Nubala
3.knows best ‘third. Aqidah Manhaj Imam ash-Shafi ‘i, translation of the book Manhaj al-Imam Ash-Shafi’ i fi al-‘Aqidah Itsbat work of DR. AW Mohammad al-aql Reader publication Imam Ash-Shafi ‘i, Cirebon
*** Source: Fataawa Magazine
Editors: Ustadz Arif Syarifuddin
returned Published by http://www.muslim.or.id
returned Published and english translation by http://misbrebes.co.cc